Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is present in most tissues and cells in the body. Vitamin D3 has a range of biological actions, such as inhibition of cellular proliferation, inducing terminal differentiation, inhibiting angiogenesis, stimulating insulin production, inhibiting renin production, and stimulating macrophage cathelicidin production. Vitamin D3 may be responsible for regulating up to 200 genes if not more that may facilitate many of the pleiotropic health benefits that have been reported for vitamin D3.
Iron is a mineral that is in all living things such as plants, animals and of course humans. It is a vital component of hemoglobin which is the part of red blood cells that carry oxygen from the lungs to the body. Iron provides hemoglobin the ability to bind oxygen and carry it from the lungs to other organs. Apart from being an essential part of red blood cell formation it is also involved in children’s proper physiological functions and growth.
Melatonin is a hormone secreted by your pineal gland (located just above the center of your brain). During the day, the pineal gland is inactive. In the evening, melatonin levels rise sharply as your brain starts to recognize light reduction. The elevated levels continue for about 12 hours. The following morning, after a night of sleep, melatonin levels return to low daytime levels – barely detectable.
The body’s production of melatonin declines gradually with age. Many doctors believe that the loss in melatonin is associated with several age-related diseases, lowered sleep efficacy, and deterioration of the circadian rhythm.
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